Iron is needed for making haemoglobin, the oxygen carrying
component of red cells.
Deficiency of iron leads to physical and mental delays in children, slows cognitive and
social development, fatigue, dizziness, headaches, decreased ability to concentrate &
increases likelihood of infection.
Teens experience rapid growth spurts increasing their needs for iron.
The daily requirement for iron in boys - 11 mg and girls - 15 mg.
Diet rich in iron include - Spinach, baked beans, Raisins, whole grain
bread, Chicken, Meat, Fish. Iron absorption from plant based sources is enhanced if Vitamin
C foods are taken along.
Calcium is required for growth of bones and teeth. There's a special
requirement for calcium in teen age children because of the growth
spurt that happens during adolescence. Maximum bone density occurs during adolescence.
Inadequate calcium intake during adolescence puts individuals at risk of developing
osteoporosis later in life.
Recommended daily allowance for calcium - 1300 mg.
Foods rich in calcium - Milk, Yogurt, Cheese, Fruits like orange,
Brocolli, Spinach, Salmon fish, peas, baked beans.
Phosphorus, like calcium, is required for growth of bones and
teeth. It also assists to maintain, repair cells and tissues, muscle contraction and nerve
Phosphorus is needed for optimalenergy utilization in the body. Deficiency of Phosphorus
causes lowenergy, stamina, irritability, numbness in feet, diffuse bone pain,joint stiffness
and susceptibility to cavities in teeth. RDA for P is 1250 mg. Foods rich in phosphorus
include all-bran cereal, almonds, cashewnuts, cheese, dried fruits, egg, garlic, legumes,
peanuts, lentils etc.,
Proteins - required for working and development of immune system,
muscle building, hair and skin development, repair and maintenance of
body, metabolic functions.
Deficiency leads to fatigue, diarrhea, loss of muscle mass, change in
color and texture of hair and skin, irritability, increased
susceptibility to infections.
RDA for boys - 52 g and for girls - 46 g
Foods rich in protein - Milk and dairy products, egg, legumes, nuts,
seeds, soy products, red meat, fish and chicken.
Thyroid hormones - required for normal growth, bone development and
regulating metabolism. Deficiency leads to intellectual disability and
Iodine is required for thyroid hormone synthesis. the daily
requirement for iodine is 150 microgram.
Iodine is present in iodised table salt, sea vegetables, cranberries,
dairy products, strawberries and sea food.
Growth hormone - is needed for anabolic functions( building up).
It's needed for increase in height, muscle mass, protein synthesis and bone growth. It's
also required for mental and emotional well being and maintaining high energy levels. It
improves cognitive function.
Growth hormone deficiency leads to short stature, low growth velocity, low energy, decreased
muscle mass, weight gain around waist, anxiety and depression.
There's an increase in childhood obesity, of late predisposing for
heart diseases at younger age.
Child with hypercholesterolemia(>170 mg/dL) is at higher risk of developing atherosclerosis,
heart disease, diabetes later in life.
Screening helps to identify and make dietary and lifestyle changes like restrict intake of
total fat to 25-30%, saturated fats to 7 %, reduce carbohydrate intake, increase omega 3
fatty acids, increasing physical activity.